The term Model-View-Controller is just a way of separating the web-site files into logical blocks [more files] so that the developer[s] can work on the different parts of a web-page with so-called `Chinese Walls`. Well that's the idea and it does work.
However, the more common use of these MVC frameworks is to provide a consistent approach to creating web-sites with standard or agreed protocols and the idea that `any` developer can easily take over another web-site without a lot of discovery as to the general techniques used to create the site. So, if your site is built with the Laravel framework, it is quite feasible that another Laravel Developer could happily come along and update your site because they `know` Laravel.
There are other benefits too and these often take the form of `plugins` or out of the box solutions so that the developer need not re-invent the wheel or at least have a starting point. This is laudable and often works.
The `Holy Grail` and the one that dictates most decisions is SEO, i.e. these Frameworks are very Search BOT friendly e.g. Google. Bottom line is that if used well an MVC framework will ensure that all your web-pages are easily read by Google and the like and therefore you'll be easily found and your content searchable on the web. That doesn't mean you'll be #1 on Google overnight, but you are playing nice with the Search Engines and therefore your content will or should be well ranked.